Papilledema is a condition characterized by swelling of the optic nerve head, caused by increased intracranial pressure. It is a serious condition that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. Causes of papilledema include intracranial tumors, hydrocephalus, intracerebral hemorrhage, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
Intracranial Tumor: Papilledema is a common presenting symptom of intracranial tumors. These tumors can be primary or metastatic and can cause increased intracranial pressure. The most common types of tumors associated with papilledema are meningiomas, gliomas, and pituitary adenomas.
Hydrocephalus: Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the brain. This can be caused by a blockage in the ventricular system, which can lead to increased intracranial pressure and papilledema.
Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a medical emergency that occurs when blood vessels in the brain rupture, leading to bleeding in the brain. This can cause increased intracranial pressure and papilledema.
Meningitis: Meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. This infection can cause inflammation of the optic nerve head and papilledema.
Venous Sinus Thrombosis: Venous sinus thrombosis is a condition characterized by the formation of blood clots in the venous sinuses of the brain. This can lead to increased intracranial pressure and papilledema.
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: IIH is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure of unknown cause. It typically affects young, overweight women and can lead to papilledema.